For different MPC environments the same toxicants are different, chemical weapons.
- Posted by: Ngọc Trinh
- Category: blog
For different MPC environments the same toxicants are different, chemical weapons.
To determine the long-term effects of pollutants (toxicants), animal experiments are performed, observational data are used during epidemics and accidents, adding a stock factor to a certain threshold effect, which reduces the effect several times.
For different MPCs of the same toxicants differ,
Chemical weapons. One of the types of weapons of mass destruction is chemical weapons, its action is based on the use of combat toxic chemicals, which include poisonous substances and toxins that affect humans, animals and plants. These substances are highly toxic and can cause both severe and fatal injuries. Toxic substances and toxins are characterized by penetration into premises, buildings, storages, affecting all living things. Sometimes there are difficulties in determining the use of this type of weapon and determining its type.
Environmental protection and chemical industry. Abstract
The abstract presents the development of a lesson on the topic: Environmental protection and chemical industry, which aims to generate knowledge about the current state of the environment and the impact of human activities on living and inanimate nature
Topic. Environmental protection and chemical industry.
to form knowledge about the current state of the environment and the impact of human activities on living and inanimate nature; to cultivate a caring attitude to the environment, a sense of responsibility for human activities and the impact of anthropogenic factors on living and inanimate nature; to develop the ability to discuss, to express one’s opinion freely (in particular, in foreign languages); to develop and improve the chemical language of students; to improve skills of work with various sources of information (periodicals, scientific literature, the Internet, conversations with experts); to form social competencies (to analyze the result of observations, to conduct a scientific discussion, to tolerantly prove one’s point of view, to form activity in decision-making); to form information competencies (use computer technologies to search for information, critically evaluate the received information); to form communicative competencies (multilingual skills) and competencies of self-development and self-education.
Type of lesson: generalization and systematization of knowledge.
Type of lesson: business game (court): integrated lesson – chemistry and English with elements of German.
Tasks of the lesson:
consider the production of sulfuric acid; assess the importance of the functioning of the chemical industry for the development of civilization; to get acquainted with the consequences of man-made impact on nature; to find out the influence of the technosphere on the Earth’s biosphere; to check the level of mastering the terminology and basic concepts of this topic.
The course of the lesson.
I. Motivation of educational activity.
(View a snippet of a video.)
Chemistry teacher. Yes, really, do we have enough strength?
Recently, he has been going through an extremely important period in his history – the growing influence of negative factors: the degradation of human morality, the degradation of nature.
Foreign language teacher. And the most acute environmental problems. It was rightly said that nature has no boundaries, rivers know no borders, and therefore environmental problems are not the problems of a single country or continent, they are the problems of all mankind. That is why we will communicate in foreign languages, not just our native language.
Chemistry teacher. Well, I invite you to express your thoughts and impressions about the revised passage.
Chemistry teacher. During the conversation you could hear the statements: "harmfulness of the chemical industry" and "the chemical industry is dangerous"…
Foreign language teacher. But there is an opinion that the chemical industry will lead to the destruction of civilization and the biosphere as a whole. Emissions of toxic substances from chemical plants cause the degradation of nature.
Chemistry teacher. I cannot disagree with the fact that today the chemical industry is a source of pollution. However, let’s try to find out together whether the chemical industry is really a danger to the biosphere.
Foreign language teacher. And the truth is best clarified in courtrooms.
II. Organization of educational activities.
(Distribution of roles: judge, lawyer, prosecutor, chemist-technologist, doctor, sociologist, jury, secretary.)
Chemistry teacher. During the hearing, you will note and write down key facts and comments on the topic of the hearing. "Chemical industry and environmental protection"…
(Comment on lesson assignments.)
III. Generalization and systematization of knowledge.
(The organization of the court session is carried out by the student-judge.)
The prosecutor (states the facts "harmfulness" chemical industry). Oxides of Sulfur and Nitrogen, which are released into the atmosphere due to the operation of thermal power plants and automobile engines, combine with atmospheric moisture and form small droplets of sulfuric and nitric acids, which are carried by winds in the form of acid mist and fall to the ground by acid rain. These rains have an extremely negative effect on the environment:
reduced yields of most crops due to acid damage to the leaves; calcium, potassium and magnesium are leached from the soil, which causes degradation of fauna and flora; forests are dying (cedar, beech and yew are especially sensitive to acid rain); the water of lakes and ponds is poisoned, where fish die, insects disappear; waterfowl and insect-eating animals disappear; forests in mountainous areas (such as the Carpathians) die, causing landslides and mudslides; the destruction of architectural monuments and residential buildings, especially those decorated with marble and limestone, is accelerating; the number of human diseases increases (eye irritation, respiratory diseases, etc.).
Lawyer (explains the importance of the chemical industry). Mankind cannot exist without the products of the chemical industry:
drug production; production of mineral fertilizers, fibers, plastics, dyes; production of explosives; metallurgy (mining of copper, nickel, uranium and other metals).
Secretary (work on the Internet).
Chemist (explanation of chemistry and hardware of the H2SO4 manufacturing process). The modern method of extraction of sulfuric acid in the contact industry. FeS2 pyrite (iron or sulfur pyrite) is used as a raw material.
The first stage of the process – burning pyrite and extraction of sulfur dioxide:
4FeS2 + 11O2 = 2Fe2O3 + 8SO2
This process takes place in pyrite furnaces, from which the combustion gas comes out. It is cleaned, dried and fed to the second stage of production in the contact apparatus.
The second stage – oxidation of sulfur dioxide and extraction of sulfur trioxide:
2SO2 + O2 = 2SO3
Oxidation occurs in the contact apparatus in the presence of catalyst and high temperature.
The third stage is the absorption of sulfur trioxide and the formation of sulfuric acid H2SO4.
The final product is oleum (a solution of SO3 in monohydrate).
(Students draw a technological scheme for the production of sulfuric acid. The secretary is working on a similar scheme near the easel.)
Ecologist (report on the impact of acid rain on wildlife) (English) The story illustrates the scheme "Acid rains" on the computer).
Doctor (information in German about the effects of acid rain on the human body. The story is accompanied by a demonstration of the diagram on a computer.)
Sociologist (results of sociological research conducted in the city of Smila and the gymnasium named after V. Senator. Invites participants to find answers to questions in English on a computer).
Secretary (information from the Internet.
IV. Lesson results.
Jurors (final discussion on the topic "The impact of the chemical industry on the biosphere").
Judge (summarizing the conversation with the twisting of students).
Foreign language teacher. Well done! You have come to the right conclusions, and we fully agree with you, hoping that this lesson has not been in vain for you.
Chemistry teacher. We hope that from now on you will be more responsible with nature.
Foreign language teacher. And now let’s analyze our lesson. Have we fulfilled all the tasks? How do you think?
(Students analyze the lesson.)
If we have completed all the tasks, then let’s check how well you have mastered the material.
(Performing a test task on a computer. The test was compiled using a test generator.
Teacher of Chemistry. Where do you think you can use the tasks?
Design and prepare a wall poster on the topic "The impact of the chemical industry on the environment"…
Dangers of life in an urban city. Abstract
Urban air pollution. Pollution of urban premises. Pollution of drinking water in cities. Noise, vibration and electromagnetic pollution of cities
Modern human civilization is characterized by rapid urbanization. They are crucially due to two factors – "demographic explosion" second half of XX century. and scientific and technological revolution in all areas.
Urbanization (from the Latin urbanos – urban) means the process of growth of cities and urban population and increase their role in the socio-economic and cultural life of society. Ways of origin of cities in the history of mankind were different. Cities emerged as joint settlements of artisans, which facilitated their production activities, as trade centers, as military fortifications (fortresses).
The process of global urbanization began in Europe, where cities first began to form due to the concentration of means of production, large-scale industry. The formation of urbanization began at the turn of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, when cities in Western Europe concentrated the most important means of production and occupied key positions in the world economy. Local urban development has given rise to a certain spatial sequence of the global process of urbanization: Western Europe – North America – Australia and Oceania – Eastern Europe – Latin America – Asia – Africa.
Already today in many countries, especially economically developed, the share of urban population is 85-90% or more in its total population. According to the UN Commission on Population, at the beginning of the XXI century https://123helpme.me/buy-compare-and-contrast-essay/. cities will be home to at least 51% of the world’s population, while in 1970.